Comfrey von Thrombophlebitis
On this site with Prof. Don't copy this to your site; feel free to link to it instead. The URL is http: This article has German roots, and it shows. It's written by a pharmacist, not an herbalist, and that, too, shows. Be that as it may, it is still the sanest scientific paper on PA-containing plants that I've seen. Numerous intoxications in animals and humans caused by the consumption of certain plants were attributed from the middle of this century to compounds of vegetable origin, the pyrrolizidine alkaloids PAs.
In Uzbekistan [1, 2], Afghanistan [3, 4] and India  up to people fell victim to mass intoxications. These accidents caused a great sensation, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis.
These intoxications were ascribed to bread cereals contaminated by the seeds of different Heliotropium and Crotalaria species. Less spectacular but also very harmful were intoxications caused by medicinal plants belonging to the genera Senecio and Crotalaria.
Especially in Jamaica and in other parts of the West Comfrey von Thrombophlebitis , in South Africa , Central Africa but also in other tropical and subtropical countries [11, 12] characteristic liver comfrey von Thrombophlebitis such as cirrhosis and primary tumors with a high mortality occurred due to occasional or continued consumption of medicinal plants bush-teas.
These diseases mainly appeared in developing countries because there comfrey von Thrombophlebitis consumption of herbs in folk medicine plays a more important role than in highly industrialized countries like in Great Britain or comfrey von Thrombophlebitis USA.
But also from these countries intoxications caused by confusions or contaminations with PA-containing plants were reported . In view of the numerous cases of intoxications and secondary diseases reported from many parts of the world their scientific treatment became a topic of the "United Nations Environmental Program, the International Labor Organization and the World Health Organization" , comfrey von Thrombophlebitis.
Although in the eighties in Europe, especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, in Switzerland and Austria the "Green Wave" claimed that medicinal plants may only have a therapeutic effect but no undesired secondary effects, intoxications and casualties were also reported from these countries comfrey von Thrombophlebitis connection with PA-containing medicinal plants . Exempt from this restriction are PA-containing pharmaceuticals if a daily administration of 0. This special regulation only applies to PA-containing homeopathic pharmaceuticals from a degree of potency of D6 with internal and D4 with external application .
Most medicinal plants discussed in this review article contain PAs of the ester type the Arzt mit Krampfadern components of which, called necines, are derived from bicyclic amino alcohols which, in turn, are derived from 1-hydroxypyrrolizidine, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis.
Comfrey von Thrombophlebitis necine can either be saturated or possess a double bond in the 1,2-position ring B, Fig, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Moreover, they may additionally bear one or two hydroxy groups at C-2, C-6 or C-7 resulting in the formation of stereoisomers. Dashed and thickened wedges lines denote a- and b-orientations of bonds, respectively; a meaning orientation away from the observer, b toward the observer.
With a few exceptions the bases of most alkaloids belong to the C-8 a series . Figure 2 compiles the necines of the alkaloids found in the medicinal plants discussed in this article.
A special role plays otonecine because it is not a genuine bicyclic five-membered ring system but an N-methylated azacyclooctanone system. It may act as a pyrrolizidine ring system due to transannular interactions. The binding between the N atom and the CO group is widered to such an extent that the indicated resonance structures result.
The corresponding esterification of necines containing a double bond in the 1,2-position results in the formation of the toxic alkaloids Fig. Necines occurring in the PAs of medicinal plants. The acids with which the necines are esterified are called necic acids.
Apart from acetic acid they possess 5 to 10 C atoms and differ from each other in their structure. They include mono- and dicarboxylic acids with branched carbon chains which are based on simple structural constituents.
They bear as substituents hydroxy, methoxy, epoxy, carboxy, acetoxy or other alkoxy groups besides methoxy substituent. Thus numerous structural, stereo- and diastereoisomers may be derived. The esterification possibilities are exemplified by several alkaloids. Necines containing one hydroxy group can be esterified with one monocarboxylic acid only as shown in Fig. Necines bearing two hydroxy groups such as 7,9-necinediols can be esterified with a monocarboxylic acid either in the 7- or 9-position as demonstrated by 7-angeloyl respectively 9-angeloylretronecine, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis.
Echimidine is an example of a twofold esterification. With dicarboxylic acids a double esterification takes place exclusively leading to the formation of alkaloids with to membered ring comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. The most widely known PAs are the membered monocrotaline, the membered alkaloids senecionine and senkirkine, the membered doronenine, and the membered parsonsine.
The most important dicarboxylic acids used for the construction of membered macrocyclic PAs, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Through combination of necines with necic acids an unimaginably large number of alkaloids may be theoretically obtained. With the exception of about 30 known otonecine alkaloids, which cannot form N-oxides, together with the N-oxides of the other alkaloids more than alkaloids are known .
The biosynthetic routes were elucidated by a number of investigations performed with 2 H- 3 H- 13 C- 14 C- and 15 N-labeled compounds. Both necine bases and necic acids are produced in the amino acid metabolism. As illustrated in Scheme 1 biosynthesis starts with decarboxylation of the amino acids L-arginine and L-ornithine by the action of arginine and ornithine decarboxylase leading to the formation of putrescine .
From two putrescine molecules homospermidine is formed. This step, the most important one in the biosynthesis of alkaloids, is catalyzed by the specific enzyme homospermidine synthetase HS . Homospermidine is cyclized to the corresponding intermediate iminium ion which is reduced with further cyclization to the 1-hydroxymethylpyrrolizidines isoretronecanole and trachelanthamidine. Subsequent hydroxylation and dehydration afford retronecine which is usually a basic constituent of the toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
Otonecine, on the other hand, basic component of the otonecine alkaloids, is produced from retronecine, presumably by further hydroxylation and formation of a ketonic group with simultaneous cleavage of the C-N bond and N-methylation. In accordance with these steps is the observation that in cell cultures of Senecio vernalis after a certain period the content of senecionine N-oxide decreases while that of senkirkine, secondary product of otonecine, increases .
Dicarboxylic acid used for the construction of membered macrocyclic PAs. Necic acids are mainly composed of L-valine, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and the secondary product of the latter, the L-threonine.
In contrast to the necine biosynthesis the synthesis of necic acids follows different routes. In the threonine metabolism monocarboxylic acids with 5 C atoms such as angelic, tiglic and sarracinic acid are generated, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Threonine the metabolism of which proceeds via a -ketobutyric acid can interact with pyruvate to furnish isoleucine which may be involved in the formation of necic acids.
The different biosynthetic routes leading to these products are compiled in Scheme 2 . Biosynthesis of mit Thrombophlebitis Sanatorium acids. Valine is converted into senecioic, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, viridifloric and trachelanthic acid via an acyloin reaction with activated acetaldehyde.
The formation of the 10 C atom-containing dicarboxylic acids is only effected by subsequent cylization of the open-chain necine monocarboxylic acid diesters. Thus, according to Bourauel, senecionine is produced from diangeloylretronecine in a reaction similar to the Michael addition proceeding via kationic intermediates . The different metabolic pathways thus enable a great variability in the formation of necic acids. Biosynthesis of dicarboxylic acids.
Biosynthesis takes place in the roots where the alkaloids occur as N-oxides. Being available in easily water-soluble form, they are transported to the aerial parts of the plant and stored there in vacuoles [63, 64]. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are products of the secondary metabolism and mainly occur in representatives of the families FabaceaeBoraginaceae and Asteraceae.
In these families their existence is predominantly restricted to several subtribes and genera as seen from the Table. Only those genera are listed in the species of which pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been comfrey von Thrombophlebitis and which play or have played a comfrey von Thrombophlebitis role as medicinal plants.
In Europe the representatives of Fabaceae are insignificant because they do not occur there. Thus, only medicinal plants belonging to the families Boraginaceae and Asteraceae are important. Occurrence of PAs in different families. Ancusagrows in South Europe, Turkey and Egypt and is still today cultivated in these countries. From time immemorial the root of this herb is applied internally as antidiarrheal agent and externally in cases of skin diseases.
Due to its intensively purple-colored dyestuffs, called alkannins, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, the bark of the root is also used for staining cosmetics and comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Three open-chain alkaloids, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, 7-angeloylretronecine 32triangularine 35 and dihydroxytriangularine 25were isolated from the bark of the root in a total concentration of 0.
The drug should however no longer be administered internally. Prior to staining of foods, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, e. Buglosse officinaleis widely distributed in Europe. The aerial parts of the plant are occasionally applied externally with contused injuries, ulcus cruris, sciatica, as compresses with diseases of a joint and of the adjacent bones, internally as a mild expectorant.
The total alkaloid content of the dried drug is ca, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Besides the nontoxic alkaloids laburnine 1 and acetyl-laburnine 2 it contains the toxic alkaloids intermedine 4lycopsamine 5 and 7-acetyllycopsamine 7 .
Common bugloss should no longer be used as medicinal plant. Boragine is a native plant. It is cultivated in North America. Borage herb and flowers are not only used as salade and spice but also in folk medicine as depuratives, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, prophylactics against inflammation of the chest and peritoneum, in cases of rheumarthritis, cough and throat diseases as well as phlebitis.
Besides the toxic alkaloids Operation, um die Krampfadern an den Beinen zu entfernen zu tun oder nicht zu tun 4comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, lycopsamine 5 and their 7-acetyl derivatives 6, 7 these materials contain in very small amounts the slightly toxic amabiline 17supinine 18 and the nontoxic thesinine 3.
The comfrey von Thrombophlebitis alkaloid amount is less than 0. On the other hand, there are no objections against an occasional consumption as a spice. Common bugloss, common hounds tongue, Beggar's-lice, ger. Cinoglosa is widely distributed in Europe.
In folk medicine the flowering herb and comfrey von Thrombophlebitis roots are applied externally in cases of injuries and sprainings, internally as antidiarrheal and a mucolytic agent. Common bugloss contains the alkaloids heliosupine 19the N-oxide of the latter, acetylheliosupine 20echinatine 23and 7-angeloylheliotridine 36 [74, 75].
The alkaloids found by Mankov et al, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Since the total content of alkaloids varying from 0. The BGA considers a therapeutic application no longer justified . Fleur des Dames, it. Eliotropio grows in Peru and Ecuador. Comfrey von Thrombophlebitis Europa it is cultivated as fragrant ornamental plant.
Schmerzen in der Speiseröhre mit Ösophagusvarizen Comfrey von Thrombophlebitis
Beinwell Rittersporn - comfrey von Thrombophlebitis Pflanze aus der Familie Boraginaceae gehören. Beinwell hat Anwendung in der Medizin gefunden. Die alten Heiler - Avicenna und Paracelsus erfolgreich mit dieser Anlage mehr als Krankheiten behandelt. So erwartet man, um das Problem des Mangels an Kautschuk zu lösen. Der unterirdische Teil der Beinwell enthält Alkaloide und liziokarpin tsinoglossin. Um Heilpflanzenwurzeln zu verwenden. Ernten sie im Spätherbst. Infusionen und Abkochungen basierend larkspur Wurzeln haben entzündungshemmende, antibakteriell, adstringierend, Regenerieren, Kuvertierung und blutstillende Wirkung.
Einnahme von Medikamenten auf der Basis von larkspur bei Krebs und die Symptome der Entzündung zu verringern. In der Volksmedizin ist die Verwendung von comfrey sehr verbreitet. Innen ist es Zwölffingerdarmgeschwüren und Magen. In Tuberkulose, Ruhr, Bronchitis mit Auswurf schwierig verlassen die Pflanze wird auch als wirksam angesehen.
Topischen Zubereitungen auf pflanzlicher Basis verwendet, um Arthritis und Radikulitis, entzündlichen Erkrankungen der Mundhöhle, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis, eitrigen Wunden und trophische Geschwüre.
Verwendung der Pflanze hemmt das Auftreten von Metastasen in Knochen. Es ist aus diesem Grund, dass eine Reihe stärkste Krampfadern an den Beinen westlichen Ländern erlaubt, das Werk in offiziellen Medizin zu verwenden, comfrey von Thrombophlebitis. Mediziner bei Pflanzenforschung festgestellt, dass längere Ergänzung larkspur hat mutagenen und karzinogenen Wirkungen.
Kontraindikation für die Aufnahme larkspur ist niedriger Blutdruck während der Schwangerschaft und Idiosynkrasie. Blossoms kleinen Blüten lila oder violett. Die Blütezeit - von Anfang Mai bis Juli. Einsatzgebiete Beinwell Beinwell hat Anwendung in der Medizin gefunden. Chemische Zusammensetzung Der unterirdische Teil der Beinwell enthält Alkaloide und liziokarpin tsinoglossin. Medizinische Eigenschaften von Beinwell Um Heilpflanzenwurzeln zu verwenden.
Beinwell - in der traditionellen Medizin verwendet In der Volksmedizin ist die Verwendung von comfrey sehr verbreitet. Daher Empfangswerk sollte unter strenger ärztlicher Aufsicht comfrey von Thrombophlebitis.
Some more links:
- Vitebsk Behandlung von Krampfadern
comfrey gegen Krampfadern; Alle Krankheiten von A-Z. Eine gesunde und ausgewogene Ernährung unterstützt das Dann Thrombophlebitis Schwangerschaft nur .
- Varizen beliebt
I. Alkaloids of Symphytum officinale LINN. sprainings, contusions, strains, thrombophlebitis, Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
- Krampfadern sportliche Übungen
The efficacy and safety of comfrey. thrombophlebitis and gout and as a treatment for diarrhoea. Hepatotoxizität von Arzneimitteln pflanzlichen Ursprungs.
- Menovazin von Varizen Bewertungen
I. Alkaloids of Symphytum officinale LINN. sprainings, contusions, strains, thrombophlebitis, Comfrey contains as many as 14 pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
- Zubereitungen Krampf Beine Venoruton
Schmerzen in der Speiseröhre mit Ösophagusvarizen Schmerzen in der Speiseröhre mit Ösophagusvarizen die Ursachen von thrombophlebitis von comfrey; Dinu C.